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Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchThis article is about the 7th president of the United States. For other people with the same name, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation).

Andrew Jackson
7th President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1837
Vice PresidentJohn C. Calhoun (1829–1832)None (1832–1833)[a]Martin Van Buren (1833–1837)
Preceded byJohn Quincy Adams
Succeeded byMartin Van Buren
United States Senator
from Tennessee
In office
March 4, 1823 – October 14, 1825
Preceded byJohn Williams
Succeeded byHugh Lawson White
In office
September 26, 1797 – April 1, 1798
Preceded byWilliam Cocke
Succeeded byDaniel Smith
1st Territorial Governor of Florida
In office
March 10, 1821 – December 31, 1821
Appointed byJames Monroe
Preceded byJosé María Coppinger
(Spanish East Florida)
José María Callava
(Spanish West Florida)
Succeeded byWilliam Pope Duval
Justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court
In office
1798–1804
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee‘s at-large district
In office
December 4, 1796 – September 26, 1797
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded byWilliam C. C. Claiborne
Personal details
BornMarch 15, 1767
Waxhaw Settlement between North Carolina and South CarolinaBritish America
DiedJune 8, 1845 (aged 78)
Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.
Cause of deathDropsy and heart failure
Resting placeThe Hermitage
Political partyDemocratic-Republican
(before 1825)
Jacksonian (1825–1828)
Democratic (1828–1845)
Spouse(s)Rachel Donelson
(m. 1794; died 1828)
Children3 adopted sons
AwardsCongressional Gold Medal
Thanks of Congress
Signature
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/serviceUnited States Army
Rank Major General (United States Army)
Major General (United States Volunteers)
Major General (Tennessee Militia)
Battles/warsAmerican Revolutionary War
 • Battle of Hanging Rock
Creek War
 • Battle of Talladega
 • Battles of Emuckfaw and Enotachopo Creek
 • Battle of Horseshoe Bend
War of 1812
 • Battle of Pensacola
 • Battle of New Orleans
First Seminole War
Conquest of Florida
 • Battle of Negro Fort
 • Siege of Fort Barrancas

Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of the U.S. Congress. As president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the “common man”[1] against a “corrupt aristocracy”[2] and to preserve the Union.

Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards. He served briefly in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate, representing Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property later known as The Hermitage, and became a wealthy, slaveowning planter. In 1801, he was appointed colonel of the Tennessee militia and was elected its commander the following year. He led troops during the Creek War of 1813–1814, winning the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The subsequent Treaty of Fort Jackson required the Creek surrender of vast lands in present-day Alabama and Georgia. In the concurrent war against the British, Jackson’s victory in 1815 at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero. Jackson then led U.S. forces in the First Seminole War, which led to the annexation of Florida from Spain. Jackson briefly served as Florida’s first territorial governor before returning to the Senate. He ran for president in 1824, winning a plurality of the popular and electoral vote. As no candidate won an electoral majority, the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams in a contingent election. In reaction to the alleged “corrupt bargain” between Adams and Henry Clay and the ambitious agenda of President Adams, Jackson’s supporters founded the Democratic Party.

Jackson ran again in 1828, defeating Adams in a landslide. Jackson faced the threat of secession by South Carolina over what opponents called the “Tariff of Abominations.” The crisis was defused when the tariff was amended, and Jackson threatened the use of military force if South Carolina attempted to secede. In Congress, Henry Clay led the effort to reauthorize the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson, regarding the Bank as a corrupt institution, vetoed the renewal of its charter. After a lengthy struggle, Jackson and his allies thoroughly dismantled the Bank. In 1835, Jackson became the only president to completely pay off the national debt, fulfilling a longtime goal. His presidency marked the beginning of the ascendancy of the party “spoils system” in American politics. In 1830, Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which forcibly relocated most members of the Native American tribes in the South to Indian Territory. The relocation process dispossessed the Indians and resulted in widespread death and disease. Jackson opposed the abolitionist movement, which grew stronger in his second term. In foreign affairs, Jackson’s administration concluded a “most favored nation” treaty with Great Britain, settled claims of damages against France from the Napoleonic Wars, and recognized the Republic of Texas. In January 1835, he survived the first assassination attempt on a sitting president.

In his retirement, Jackson remained active in Democratic Party politics, supporting the presidencies of Martin Van Buren and James K. Polk. Though fearful of its effects on the slavery debate, Jackson advocated the annexation of Texas, which was accomplished shortly before his death. Jackson has been widely revered in the United States as an advocate for democracy and the common man. Many of his actions proved divisive, garnering both fervent support and strong opposition from many in the country. His reputation has suffered since the 1970s, largely due to his role in Native American removal. Surveys of historians and scholars have ranked Jackson favorably among U.S. presidents.

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