Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt

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Franklin D. Roosevelt
Photograph by Leon Perskie, 1944
32nd President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945
Vice PresidentJohn Nance Garner
(1933–1941)Henry A. Wallace
(1941–1945)Harry S. Truman
(Jan.–Apr. 1945)
Preceded byHerbert Hoover
Succeeded byHarry S. Truman
44th Governor of New York
In office
January 1, 1929 – December 31, 1932
LieutenantHerbert H. Lehman
Preceded byAl Smith
Succeeded byHerbert H. Lehman
Assistant Secretary of the Navy
In office
March 17, 1913 – August 26, 1920
PresidentWoodrow Wilson
Preceded byBeekman Winthrop
Succeeded byGordon Woodbury
Member of the New York Senate
from the 26th district
In office
January 1, 1911 – March 17, 1913
Preceded byJohn F. Schlosser
Succeeded byJames E. Towner
Personal details
BornFranklin Delano Roosevelt
January 30, 1882
Hyde Park, New York, U.S.
DiedApril 12, 1945 (aged 63)
Warm Springs, Georgia, U.S.
Cause of deathCerebral hemorrhage
Resting placeSpringwood Estate
Hyde Park, New York, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Eleanor Roosevelt (m. 1905)
Children6 including Franklin Jr.AnnaElliottJames, and John
ParentsJames Roosevelt ISara Roosevelt
RelativesRoosevelt familyDelano family
EducationHarvard University (AB)
This article is part of
a series aboutFranklin D. Roosevelt
Early lifeFamilyParalysisState SenatorSecretary of the Navy1920 Smith–Roosevelt campaignGovernor of New YorkGovernorshipPresident of the United StatesPresidencyFirst term1932 campaign Election1st inaugurationFirst 100 daysNew DealGlass-Steagall ActWPASocial SecuritySECFireside ChatsSecond term1936 campaign Election2nd inaugurationSupreme Court PackingNational Recovery Act1937 recessionMarch of DimesPre-war foreign policyThird term1940 campaign Election3rd inaugurationWorld War IIWorld War II Attack on Pearl HarborInfamy SpeechAtlantic CharterJapanese InternmentTehran ConferenceUnited NationsD-DaySecond Bill of RightsG.I. BillFourth term1944 campaign Election4th inaugurationYalta ConferenceDeclining healthDeath and state funeralElectoral historyLegacyCriticismForeign policyNew Deal criticsCivil rights recordProposed dictatorshipPresidential LibraryMemorial
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Franklin Delano Roosevelt (/ˈroʊzəvəlt/,[1] /-vɛlt/;[2] January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the Democratic Party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century. His third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II, which ended shortly after he died in office.

Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to the Roosevelt family made well known by the reputation of Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States, and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR graduated from Groton School and Harvard College and attended Columbia Law School but left after passing the bar exam to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt. They had six children, of whom five survived into adulthood. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, and then served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox‘s running mate on the Democratic Party’s 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Republican Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, and his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, Georgia, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928. He served as governor from 1929 to 1933, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States.

In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal — a variety of programs designed to produce relief, recovery, and reform. He created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He also instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance, communications, and labor, and presided over the end of Prohibition. He harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 “fireside chat” radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised. With the economy having improved rapidly from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy then relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937 (the “court packing plan”), which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance CorporationSocial Security, and the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.

The United States reelected FDR in 1940 for his third term, making him the only U.S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and fina

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