Jackie Robinson

Jackie Robinson

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Jackie Robinson
Robinson with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1954
Second baseman
Born: January 31, 1919
Cairo, Georgia
Died: October 24, 1972 (aged 53)
Stamford, Connecticut
Batted: RightThrew: Right
MLB debut
April 15, 1947, for the Brooklyn Dodgers
Last MLB appearance
October 10, 1956, for the Brooklyn Dodgers
MLB statistics
Batting average.311
Home runs137
Runs batted in734
Teams
Negro leaguesKansas City Monarchs (1945)Major League BaseballBrooklyn Dodgers (19471956)
Career highlights and awards
6× All-Star (19491954)World Series champion (1955)NL MVP (1949)MLB Rookie of the Year (1947)NL batting champion (1949)2× NL stolen base leader (1947, 1949)Los Angeles Dodgers No. 42 retiredNo. 42 retired by all MLB teamsMonument Park honoreeMajor League Baseball All-Century Team
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Induction1962
Vote77.5% (first ballot)

Jack Roosevelt Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) was an American professional baseball player who became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball (MLB) in the modern era.[1] Robinson broke the baseball color line when he started at first base for the Brooklyn Dodgers on April 15, 1947.[2] When the Dodgers signed Robinson, they heralded the end of racial segregation in professional baseball that had relegated black players to the Negro leagues since the 1880s.[3] Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.[4]

During his 10-year MLB career, Robinson won the inaugural Rookie of the Year Award in 1947, was an All-Star for six consecutive seasons from 1949 through 1954, and won the National League Most Valuable Player Award in 1949—the first black player so honored.[5][6] Robinson played in six World Series and contributed to the Dodgers’ 1955 World Series championship.

In 1997, MLB retired his uniform number 42 across all major league teams; he was the first professional athlete in any sport to be so honored. MLB also adopted a new annual tradition, “Jackie Robinson Day“, for the first time on April 15, 2004, on which every player on every team wears No. 42.

Robinson’s character, his use of nonviolence, and his unquestionable talent challenged the traditional basis of segregation that had then marked many other aspects of American life. He influenced the culture of and contributed significantly to the civil rights movement.[7][8] Robinson also was the first black television analyst in MLB and the first black vice president of a major American corporation, Chock full o’Nuts. In the 1960s, he helped establish the Freedom National Bank, an African-American-owned financial institution based in Harlem, New York. After his death in 1972, Robinson was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal and Presidential Medal of Freedom in recognition of his achievements on and off the field.

Contents

Early life

Family and personal life

Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, into a family of sharecroppers in Cairo, Georgia. He was the youngest of five children born to Mallie (McGriff) and Jerry Robinson, after siblings Edgar, Frank, Matthew (nicknamed “Mack”), and Willa Mae.[9][10][11] His middle name was in honor of former President Theodore Roosevelt, who died 25 days before Robinson was born.[12][13] After Robinson’s father left the family in 1920, they moved to Pasadena, California.[14][15][16]

The extended Robinson family established itself

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